Pyotr Kapitsa (1894–1984) - physicist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1939), twice Hero of Socialist Labor, and Nobel Prize winner.
Born July 8 in Kronstadt in the family of a military engineer. He first studied at the gymnasium, then at Kronstadt real school. In 1914 he entered the Electromechanical Faculty of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, but at the end of the same year he went to the front. After demobilization, he returned to the institute and worked in the laboratory under the guidance of A.F. Ioffe In 1918–1921 - Lecturer of the Faculty of Physics and Mechanics of the Polytechnic Institute, then an employee of the Physics Institute established in Petrograd, which was headed by Ioffe. In 1921–1934 worked in England at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge, led by E. Rutherford. He became director of the Mond laboratory at the Royal Society of Scientists. In 1935, P. Kapitsa headed the Institute for Physical Problems of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
The most famous for Pyotr Kapitsa brought his innovative experimental research in the field of low temperature physics, the creation of technology for obtaining pulsed superstrong magnetic fields, work on plasma physics. In 1924, he managed to obtain a magnetic field of 500 kgf . In 1932 he created a liquefier of hydrogen, in 1934 - a liquefier of helium, and in 1939 - a low-pressure installation for the industrial production of oxygen from air. In 1938, Peter Leonidovich discovered an unusual property of liquid helium - a sharp decrease in viscosity at a temperature below the critical (2.19 K); this phenomenon is now called superfluidity.
In 1978, Pyotr Kapitsa was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental inventions and discoveries in the field of low-temperature physics.
The postage stamp depicts a portrait of Peter Leonidovich Kapitsa against the background of the drawing of the “spider” device, which the physicist came up with to demonstrate the helium superfluidity phenomenon discovered by him.
In addition to the issue of postage stamps of JSC "Marka", the first day envelopes were issued and a special cancellation stamp was made for Moscow.
Artist: M. Podobed .
Rating: 32 r.
The size of the stamp: 32.5 × 32.5 mm, sheet size: 119.5 × 119.5 mm.
Form release: sheets with decorated fields of 9 brands (3 × 3).
Circulation: 135 thousand marks (15 thousand sheets).